T.67.1, s. 109-130

Contemporary trends toward environmental issues in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Współczesne tendencje w opiniach o zagadnieniach środowiskowych w irakijskim Kurdystanie

Kaywan Othman AHMED
Faculty of Engineering,
Tishk International University,
Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq)
E-mail: Kaywan.osman@tiu.edu.iq
ORCID: 0000-0002-8225-1721
Shuokr Qarani AZIZ
College of Engineering,
Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil,
Kurdistan Region (Iraq)
E-mail: shuor.aziz@su.edu.krd,
ORCID: 0000-0002-3458-2083
Peshang Hama KARIM
Doctoral School of Exact and Natural Sciences,
University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)
E-mail: p.hamakarim@student.uw.edu.pl
ORCID: 0000-0001-9340-1847
(Corresponding author)
Twana Ahmed HUSSEIN
Faculty of Engineering,
Tishk International University,
Erbil, Kurdistan Region (Iraq)
E-mail: Twana.ahmad@tiu.edu.iq
ORCID: 0000-0001-6067-7695
Independent Researcher,
Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq)
E-mail: shazadaomer3@gmail.com

Abstract: Environmental problems can be the public’s concern, and they also feel the ratio of dangerousness. Consequently, collecting their opinions and trying to get to know the way of their thinking regarding their environmental problem and solving them was an attractive case study for the authors of this article. In this research, the authors found the public’s opinion and attitude regarding environmental situations and issues in Kurdistan Region-Iraq throughout a public questionnaire/survey. Around 450 people randomly participated from various geographical locations/cities of the region proportioned to the population rate regarding different demography, gender, age, and academic background. The statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used to analyze their opinion. Also, the cross-tabulation method was used to understand the relationship between two or more variables. Gender, age, and educational background had effects on the participants’ attitudes toward environmental issues. Females, aged from 20 to 30, and Ph.D. degree holders were paying more attention to the environment. Geographically, the participation ratio for the Sulaimani, Erbil, Duhok, Halabja, and Kirkuk Provinces was 28.48 %, 21.95 %, 17.61%, 16.69%, and 15.00 %, respectively. High and low participation levels of the contributors are a reflection of the environmental awareness of the contributors, providing environmentalfacilities for the people, background, and culture of the community, and stability of political, economical, and social issues of the areas. Furthermore, COVID-19 affected the environment, and commonly it had a positive impact on the environment.

Key words: environment, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, pollution, COVID-19, geographical distribution

Zalecany sposób cytowania / Cite as: Ahmed K.O., Aziz S.Q., Karim P.H., Hussein T.A., Najmalddin S.O., 2022, Contemporary trends toward environmental issues in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Prace i Studia Geograficzne, 67.1, Wydział Geografii i Studiów Regionalnych Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa, 109–130, DOI: 10.48128/pisg/2022-67.1-07

Wpłynęło: 6.05.2021
Zaakceptowano: 1.06.2022

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